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Germany so reminiscent of Wilhelm Hohenzollern, the abandonment of Czechoslovakia by France, the stockbrokerly peace with stockbrokerly honour of Chamberlain in England, the triumphant cynicism of Mussolini in Spain and England's complicity in it, and the surrender of the League of Nations to Italy in the case of Abyssinia, give us a devastating picture of the moral bankruptcy of Europe, resembling so much the moral bankruptcy of China in the third century B.C., with the same selling out of small states by the big states to the growing dictator Ch'in Shih Huang, the same "bribing for peace" by the Six States presenting Ch'in with bits of others' territories, the same fear and hesitancy of the small states in turning for protection, the sarpe cynicism toward covenants and treaties, and the same dallying with the dictator-totalitarian nation by the great Ch'i Kingdom for its selfish benefit—all done by able statesmen speaking large inouthfuls of desire for "peace," "security," "justice" and "honour," until the totalitarian state engulfed them all. The Chinese realize that if Europe is not willing to fight for justice in Spain, much less can justice serve as the principle of international dealings elsewhere. Thus the word "modernity" has a bad ring about it, and China in accepting modernity has to accept it whole. The modern world is united in a cultural as well as economic unit, and the principle of sacred treaties or the principle of force in world affairs becomes a world system from which none may escape.
Yet the modernization of China contains within it also blessings for the Chinese people. It is necessary to understand the social transformation of China from within, in order to appreciate what is happening inside China. Modernization is an inexorable process brought about by the spread of newspapers and radios and a thousand other contacts with the West, and it cannot be stopped no matter what the vicissitudes of fortune on the battlefield. Even the Japanese cannot do anything about this new reborn Chinese nation. The strength of the Chinese resistance to-day is built upon this new nationalism, brought about by the modernization of her people. The reason why history is not going to repeat itself and China is not going to be conquered and then absorb her conquerors is that, not only Japan is not the Manchus or Mongols of other